Among the findings, the biggest expedition in the history of the Crimea there are stone age artifacts, and utensils of ancient times, and medieval weapons.


“Alexander rocks 1”. Top view of mound 2 and the burial ground of the Roman period.

Novostroika Crimean expedition of the Institute of archaeology RAS, begun last spring, is shutting down in the Eastern part of the Peninsula. During this time the area along the newly built highway “Tauris” from Simferopol to Kerch experts examined more than 60 monuments from the Mesolithic to the nineteenth century.

“This is the largest archaeological site in the history of the Crimea. We researched nearly 300-mile “historical and cultural context of” leaving in the past 10 thousand years. Together we have worked with anthropologists, paleozoologists, soil scientists, conservators, scientists from the Crimea, Novosibirsk, St .-Petersburg, Krasnodar territory,” – said the head of the expedition, doctor of historical Sciences Sergey Grandchildren.

He also stressed that there is still a lot of work on the analysis of the collected material, however, it is now possible to draw some preliminary conclusions of the work. Upon completion of the research and publication of results all findings of thousands of artifacts will be transferred to the museums of the Crimea.

For the first time in a large project for the preservation of monuments was attended by leading archaeological institutions of Russia from different regions: Institute of archaeology, RAS (Moscow), Institute of history of material culture RAS (St.-Petersburg), Institute of archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS (Novosibirsk), Historical and archaeological Museum-reserve “Scythian Naples” (Simferopol), the Institute of archaeology of the Crimea (Simferopol), as well as archaeological organizations of the Krasnodar territory. The interaction of different scientific centers and archaeologists, who formerly worked in the black sea region, made it possible to perform large-scale field work in a short time.

Stone age, bronze and iron

The most ancient monument, which is explored expedition – Park “Apple 1” in Belogorsk region. Here were found stone tools and blanks for them: cores, flakes, plates, scrapers, knives, cutter. Findings indicate that there was a camp of hunters and gatherers of the stone age. The features of the tools to date Parking the Mesolithic and Neolithic, that is, IX–IV centuries BC.

The bronze age includes fourteen burial mounds explored by the expedition. In those days the Crimean steppe and foothills inhabited by nomads who buried their dead in mounds on the side with the crossed knees. The earliest such burial mounds built by the pit (second half of III – beginning of II Millennium BC) and Kemi-ubinskoe (end III – first half II tysjacheletija BC) archaeological cultures. The burial of Kemi-ubinskoe culture were made in the stone boxes with painted ochre interior walls. The deceased had been buried the moulded vessel, made of stone and bone.

During the late bronze age in mounds appear complex stone structures. The most striking example was a mound No. 3 of the barrow group “Fountain 1”. Here before the first burial, built a low earthen platform around the perimeter lined with stones. From the South adjacent to it was the design of the large stone blocks in the form of the letter “P”. In the center of the site under the plates buried a child which put stucco-ornamented vessel. Later, around the Central burial was built a square fence of the same massive blocks. In subsequent periods, the mound was made a few burials.

Top view of the stone structure of the barrow of the bronze age, burial mound “Fountain 1”.


To the early iron age (the Kizil-Koba culture and the Scythian – IX–IV centuries BC), are eleven mounds and more than a dozen intake of the burials in barrows of an earlier time. In most cases this burial in a simple rectangular pits, followed by stucco vessels. In the Scythian burials are also found bronze arrowheads, single iron objects and jewellery. In one burial where he was buried a warrior, nashali Greek amphora with the stamp.

Mound Sary-su of the Scythian time. The bones of horses and Herakleian amphora in the Central burial.

Antique

Ancient settlement in the excavation area were found only on the Kerch Peninsula, on the border of the Bosporan Kingdom. Basically it is a rural settlement from the Hellenistic time of the IV–III centuries BC. e. in addition, experts examined the area of the ancient city “11th mile” of the I century BC – III century BC, where it was found a large number of artifacts, including coins. Excavations are carried out, and all the defensive ramparts of the Kerch Peninsula: Bloodless, Achkasova (Uzunlarskoe), Armeniska.

For the first time a detailed study conducted at the mounds of “Hospital” and “concrete suburb” in Kerch. Their tombs were destroyed and plundered in antiquity.

Black lacquer red-figure pelike, third quarter of the IV century from the burial in Kurgan Hospital.


Ask red-black lacquer from tresnovka complex of Kurgan Hospital.


Krasnyakov Cup, barbotin, BC, from burials in Kurgan 4, burial Cement Slobidka 1.

Ten kilometers West from Kerch archaeologists have studied two mound groups “Alexander cliff”. Here I found two burial I–II centuries BC, which discovered 213 burials.

In the burials found red clay and kresnyakova bowls and jugs. The bowls are often found bones of animals. There were findings of small iron knives and whetstones, bronze buckles, brooches and glass bottles, beads.

Hutus (vessel dosing) krasnyakov from the burial ground of the Roman period “Alexandroff rock 1”.

The middle ages

Most of the early medieval monuments on the route of the “Tavrida” is represented by the inlet burials in ancient mounds in the XI–XIII centuries. One of the most interesting – the burial of a Polovtsian warrior-nomad in Kurgan 1 of the group of fourteen mounds in the Belogorsk district. The warrior was buried together with an iron chain mail, chainmail helmet-misuras, a leather quiver of arrows, iron sword, silver twisted stump of the hryvnia, an amphora, a bronze pot with iron bail.

The Golden Horde’s epoch date from the two settlements: “Kosh-Kuyu” and “Gem-1”. In the study of the “Pearl 1” found six fully-preserved mud-brick furnaces with ducts of the ceramic tubes. In the layer of ash that filled one of the furnaces and remains of grains. The settlement was found a copper coin, elements of horse harness, fragments of knives.

Settlement “The Pearl-1”. Top view of the oven of the Golden Horde time.

Among the pottery found here, stands out front dishes: glazed polychrome decorated bowls of local production and imported kasynie (Kashin – white porous ceramic mass) bowl XIII – first half XIV centuries. Especially interesting the glass vessel is painted with colored enamels; its analogues can be found among middle Eastern vessels in the second half of the XIII–XIV century.

Irrigation and Kachina dinnerware Golden time settlement “the Pearl-1”.

Settlement of the late middle ages and the new time is represented by six sites. Two settlements of buildings have survived only lime fill the floors with hearths and pits underground, the buildings themselves were probably wooden.

At the end of the XVIII–XIX century the masonry of the worked stones on the clay. Findings of this time – Turkish and Russian coins, Smoking pipes, plain jewelry and copper things. Technological traditions in pottery are undergoing some changes, but retains many of the shape of vessels, known in the Golden Horde period.

Interesting excavated in the settlement “Lenin 7” (village of Argin of the XIX century) stone “pool-tank” with a well in the center. Apparently, it was a public building.

Settlement Argin. General view of the “cellar-cistern” of the XIX century.

S. Y. Vnukov, I. V. Rukavishnikova, A. N. Khokhlov, K. I. Panchenko (Moscow), A. Mikhailov (Kerch), Yu. p. Zaitsev (Simferopol), P. I. Shulga (Novosibirsk), E. I. Narozhnyi (Armavir).