Deputy Minister for development of the Far East Sergei Kutaev

© Yuri Smityuk/TASS

MOSCOW, July 15. /TASS/. The authorities intend three times to reduce the number of people leaving from the Far East to other regions of the country, by 2018, reported TASS the Deputy Minister of the Russian Federation on development of the Far East Sergei Kutaev. According to Rosstat, in 2014 the region has left more than 265 thousand people, which is comparable to the population of Kalmykia.

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How and by what means it is planned to increase the population and to stimulate the birth rate in the regions of the far Eastern Federal district (FEFD) and what measures can reduce migration from the Far East at TASS .

The improvement of the demographic situation is one of the goals of the demographic policy concept of the macro-region, recently adopted by the Russian government, which proposed specific measures to reduce the outflow of population, attract residents, increase fertility, and to increase the effectiveness of the program “far Eastern hectare”.

“By 2018, the migration outflow will be reduced by three times compared to 2014, including through the creation of new jobs, and get off to a positive migration growth of the population by 2021,” – said the Deputy Minister Kachaev.

Demographic problems of the region

According to the Ministry, for ten years, from 1991 to 2000, the population of the far Eastern Federal district decreased by 1.2 million people. By 1991, the far East lived 8,06 million people, which is a historic high. Now in the macro-region is home to about 6.2 million people.

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“The significant reduction is mainly due to migration to Central and Western regions of the country. Primarily, this is due to the decline in economic activity in the far East: since 1990-ies there were closed businesses. In recent years, thanks to the Federal and regional level measures the rate of out-migration has reduced significantly,” explained Kachaev.

The Deputy Minister added that the region is “relatively low quality of life, social sphere, transport and utilities infrastructure and the level of organization of labor.” In DFO there are problems with jobs, housing and quality education. All of this leads to migration from the Far East to the European part of the country.

The Exodus is particularly noticeable in some regions. According to Rosstat, from Primorsky Krai in 2016 has left more than 80 thousand people. The population is falling in seven of the nine regions of DFO. Positive dynamics is visible only in Yakutia and on Sakhalin.

The fight against Exodus

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Kachaev noted that the creation of new jobs will not only help to stop the brain drain but also to attract people to the far East. According to him, by 2025 it is planned to attract enterprises of FEFD of up to 300 thousand new employees. Some of them will be able to move to the County under the program of the Ministry of labor stimulation of labor mobility. The program offers financial support when moving to certain regions of the country, including the far East.

Projects that will help to attract people from other regions are being implemented even now. For example, development of the Vostochny space centre, science city of Tsiolkovsky and other large businesses will bring in Amur oblast up to 100 thousand new residents.

“More job creation for the operation of the investment projects will ensure population growth. In parallel with the implementation of these projects is the construction of additional social infrastructure, over time, will strengthen the functional links between the separate settlements of the region”, – said the Governor of the Amur region Alexander Kozlov.

The improvement of living conditions

Young people are leaving the Far East, because they do not have the opportunity to enroll in good universities, so the concept of demographic policy special attention is paid to education. As noted Kachaev, young people now goes for the quality of education in the universities of Central Russia, and will not be returned to the far East.

“Our goal is to create a system of education that would allow to root the youth in the region. It’s the opening of branches of universities from European part of the country, this exchange of students between universities, as well as opening departments of the universities of the European part of the Russian far East”, – he explained.

Increasing the birth rate

The Deputy Minister added that the regions of the Far East differ in the level of fertility, mortality and migration, therefore, for each of them to individual measures to improve the demographic situation. For example, in the Magadan region and Primorsky Krai, the question of fertility is the most critical: its level is below the national. To improve this indicator, local authorities will increase the availability of housing, develop infrastructure, introduce subsidies and incentives. In particular, young families will provide special conditions on the mortgage.

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“Deals with the issues of subsidy of the initial payment on mortgage loans. And as the birth of children in the family, depending on their number, – (assuming approx. TASS) a reduction in interest rates and the repayment of the debt. In the event of the birth of three children it is proposed to fully repay family mortgage loan”, – said the Deputy Minister Kachaev.

In addition will a revised system of allowances and benefits. For example, in the Khabarovsk territory is developing a new mechanism for subsidizing housing for large families – today, in the region of 14 thousand it is Assumed that the size of state support from the regional budget may be 10% of the estimated cost of housing. Families with children can receive a 30% compensation of expenses on payment of utilities, free medicines for children under six years of monthly cash payments and free permits in children’s sanatoria and camps.

In Yakutia, the birth rate is among the highest in the country, and the main task – to save it. For this, the Republic will check the reproductive health of young people.

“We will deal with the preservation of reproductive health of population of the Republic, in particular, (we are planning approx. TASS) to pay attention to the health of boys and girls, to expand the medical-genetic consultation of young families for the prevention of genetic diseases. We must prevent the birth of sick children – newborns need to be healthy and strong,” – said Deputy Minister of health of Yakutia Ludmila Verbitskaya.

“Far Eastern hectare”

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An important part of programs to improve the attractiveness of the Eid act “far hectare”. According to the document, each citizen of Russia has the right to receive free of charge a hectare of land in the far East. The resulting plot it is possible to live, to engage in economic activities or conduct business.

According to the press service of the Ministry, with the beginning of the program for “far East hectare” applied to more than 95 thousand citizens from all regions of Russia, including more than 22 thousand have already received land. According to the Minister of the Russian Federation for Far East development Alexander Galushka, until the end of 2017 will be taken about 150 thousand the hectare and not less than 50 thousand sites.

The first practical results of the use of concessional lending for the recipients of the “far Eastern hectare”, in which the development Fund of the Far East together with “Mail Bank” to provide loans from 3 to 600 thousand roubles at interest rates of 8.5-10.5% per annum for a period of 6 to 60 months, will be presented at the third East economic forum which will pass in Vladivostok from 6 to 7 September.