Completed modernization of a spherical tokamak “globe-M” – a unique installation of Ioffe Institute.

The tokamak is a acronym f or “Toroidal Chamber with Magnetic Coils”. With this setup you can control nuclear fusion – process of merging light nuclei of deuterium or tritium.

A difficult task: to start the reaction necessary to overcome the electrostatic repulsion of the equally charged nuclei and bring them to distances, which will earn the nuclear forces of attraction. To ensure that the resulting energy was higher than required, the plasma must be very hot (over 100 million degrees) and dense (more than 1015 particles/cm3). However, such a plasma in a magnetic field are unstable, so you need to find a suitable mode of operation, to hold her inside the chamber of the tokamak.

The Russian complex “Globus-M2” is the former “Globus-M”, which operates in the Physical-technical Institute. A. F. Ioffe RAS since 1999 and is among the world’s top three installations of this kind. This is the first and only one in Russia and one of the world’s first spherical tokamak. In 2017, the employees of the Ioffe Institute with the participation of specialists of the Institute of nuclear physics. G. I. Budker SB RAS carried out a modernization installation. Her goal is 2-2. 5 fold increase in the magnetic field and the current in the plasma need to warm up and retention. In addition, there would be a second injector high-energy atomic beams, providing additional heating.

The upgrade tokamak “globe-M” significantly several times, increasing the temperature and density of plasma, and the installation of power density of the plasma heating will in the leading position. Thus, it will be possible to reproduce conditions close to those that will arise in the near-wall region of the future reactor ITER, the first plasma which is planned in 2025.

The international thermonuclear experimental reactor ITER is one of the largest research projects of the XXI century. ITER could become a new source of energy, safer and more efficient than modern nuclear power plant. FTI im. Ioffe is responsible for the development of three diagnostic systems for this installation. Equipment for ITER will be testing on the tokamak “globe-M2” now. Data obtained on modern tokamaks worldwide to better understand the fundamental processes and prepare the basis to successfully create a fusion reactor.

The principle of operation of a tokamak-based fusion, the same process that occurs in the center of the Sun. Stars, including our Sun is a natural fusion reactors. In the interior of the Sun enormous substance density heated to 15 million degrees Celsius.

To create such conditions on Earth, in the early 1950s, the Soviet physicists Andrei Sakharov and Igor Tamm developed the idea of the tokamak. In this superconducting magnets surrounded by a toroidal (doughnut shaped, empty inside) of the vacuum chamber and create in it a toroidal magnetic field together with the field current and keeps the hot plasma at some distance from the walls of the chamber.

About the current state of implementation of the Russian project described in the article published in the journal Nuclear Fusion.

3D model of tokamak Globus-M2.

3D model of tokamak Globus-M2 in cross section.

New injector neutral beam production BINP.

The inner surface of the vacuum chamber of the tokamak Globus-M2.

Test Assembly of the tokamak Globus-M2.

The electron beam in a vacuum chamber of the injector.”