Ah, Odessa — the pearl of the sea… So it saw the Soviet Estrada. She actually left, despite the fact that “pearls” has faded and now even belongs to another state — Ukraine, which officially we are not friends. And unofficially, in the face of political ambitions, territorial claims from both sides, absorb Odessa, inhaled it into her. In this seaside, friendly, hot, with light South of apathy, colorful and with a special intonation is?
However, to get to know a city legend, a guide is necessary to take the present of Odessa. So I took the Director Iosif reichelgaus, which is love and who brought his own theatre “School of modern play” in his hometown on tour. Proceeded with him to the streets, trampled overhead, traveled surroundings, to comprehend the incomprehensible: what is the phenomenon of Odessa?
photo: Marina Raikin
And Malaya Arnautskaya-not a fountain
— Listen to this amazing city, says Joseph . He’s a big, excitable fists like Boxing gloves. But in fact he is an artist. — On the one hand, Odessa gives a powerful emotional food: here literature, communication and people near to whom you feel ashamed because you can quote by heart Akhmatova or Brodsky. Moreover, the city itself somehow fused with the literature: think, Kataev and his “lone White sail”, but nevertheless — bulls, Bringing Rybny a row. Or “all contraband is made in little Arnaut” — all comments to life.
By the way, the famous street that I once learned from Ilf and Petrov, from their “the Twelve chairs”, today, without any signs of smuggling. Street street: a new house next to the old, and the last slightly, and not even slightly mangy street cats. Asphalt with a diagnosis of smallpox. Ask:
— Is it true that all the smuggling was done here, or is that a myth from satirists?
— Odessa itself largely a myth, but this myth still something supported. Did Pushkin with his tenth Chapter of “Onegin” is not a myth? He himself over themselves laughing. “Odessa sonorous verses our friend Tumansky described”. Same with that “charming pen gardens Odessa glorified. All good, but the fact is (listen carefully!), the steppe naked there”. That is, there were no gardens, and they are already painted.
Odessa drowning in the green, as the heavily Laden boat into the sea. Chestnuts, plane trees… Tall acacia under the weight of the branches to the ground slope, in places forming a shady arch.
— And now we’re at the Fountains at Fontanskaya road. It goes along the sea and consists of three parts: a Small Fountain, Large and Medium. The fountain of the sixteen stations. Know where the expression “not a fountain”? — asks Raihelgauz.
From the fountains?
— Odessa water has always been a difficult situation: it was extracted from artesian wells, the purest. And people came here from cans — water is not there — or horse-drawn tram transported the water across the city. People have tried, and if they don’t like, said no, this is not a Fountain. I mean, not the Fountain.
— Now, how about water?
— Okay. (By the way, in hotels just say: water in the city is hot and cold. — M. R.), Tower forty kilometers from the city in Biliaivka. Was a Soviet film “Thirst”, the script was written by poet Grigory pozhenyan, also Odessa: its during the war was twice shot, but he miraculously remained alive. The film is about how a few Marines — pozhenyan he was a paratrooper and he knew, about what wrote — holding down the Fort at waterworks food and drink city water. For this reason he has very good poetry:
In the red dream, red dream,
In the red dream fleeing soldiers.
Those which once
I was killed in the war.
By the way, on the Big Fountain in the 37th year he made the film “Peter the great” — the place is legendary, you know.
On the way to a Large Fountain, passing no perceptible two-storey building of yellow brick — like GAI. “This — he says Raihelgauz, — school, where he studied Chubays”. It turns out that he was born Anatoly Borisovich in Belarus, he came to Odessa with his father — the military man, taught Marxism-Leninism. Chubais here he studied until the eighth grade and then went to Leningrad, where he met Raihelgauz. Still they are inseparable — obviously, the fountain.
— Now, we will look for a place to Park, says my companion.
There’s a place, it is necessary to quickly enter, not yet occupied.
— My girl, calmly, in Odessa no hurry.
What does Russian theater and Raihelgauz?
I was told that in Odessa, only five percent of the Jews, and was almost forty. The result of the anti-Semitic policies?
— Yes, there is anti-Semitism at school was sitting next to me Osia Alterman, Alex Weisberg, Alex Hoffmann… there were a lot of Jews, then they began to drive off, drive away… the Mayor here for many years was Eduard Gurvits. It twice elected for five years, and one day when it was not approved at the top, in Kiev, Odessa citizens took to the streets and defended their wonderful mayor. By the way, thanks to him, there is no street of Lenin/Stalin and the old name it back. And moved from the Central square of the Soviet monument to the sailors of Potemkin closer to the port, and in its place returned Catherine, the founder of Odessa.
What kind of anti-Semitism are you talking about?! Personally, I had one encounter with such a manifestation, and then in Moscow. Tobacco and Volchek still left me in the “contemporary”, and the Ministry of culture kept trying to send me back to Tver the chief Director. And once again I was called to the Ministry, and such a serious uncle began to speak to me: “Joseph Leonidovich, we are adults, you are full-time Director of the theater “Contemporary”, currently working on a play by Konstantin Mikhailovich Simonov the 30th anniversary of the great Victory… But your name… Heaven-Helga-ties… Well, take you an alias. Here Oleg Tabakov offers a wonderful surname to take — Leonidov”.
I said, “You know, my dear, I so agree with you, I’ll tell you more, me and my do not like. What does Russian theatre and Joseph Raihelgauz? But there is just one detail: my grandfather, Meyer Kananovich Raihelgauz, was for many years Chairman of the collective farm-the millionaire in the Odessa region. But I’m even more will tell you: my dad with that name came to Berlin. “Sergeant Raihelgauz only for the days of the offensive on Berlin destroyed 71 one of the Nazi soldiers”, — wrote the newspaper “Red star”. And dad signed on the Reichstag. So I’m happy to be Leonidov, but how am I going to explain this? They’re alive!” He realize something, waved his hand: go ahead. That’s the whole anti-Semitism.
“Odessa Tyuzu urgently required artist of the 48‑th size”
Parked around the corner Deribasovskaya. The famous street is now a pedestrian passage is allowed here, only horse carriages with tourists. Friend the barmaid aunt Lena of Russian theatre, who relish Smoking a strong cigarette, so commented: “Yes sho you forgot this Deribasovskaya? Now her horse fall into a faint”. However, unconscious of coreg not visible. Pavements on the main streets are not paved with cobblestone, and lava, which has long been brought (here they are, the Odessa show-off!) under Vesuvius. Very durable material — black, matte.
The Opera house is like a giant lush cake. And around the corner in the alley Tchaikovsky, perched local youth theatre. Here he started his career young Joe Raihelgauz. In the youth Theatre, which in Ukrainian sounds like Theatre of young padaca, future Director at the age of 16 years worked for a year as an artist.
— And you, Iosif Leonidovich, has no education? Brilliant Jewish boy?
— And I took very simply: at sixteen, I traveled to Kharkov theatre Institute — was not accepted. There, the filmmakers recruited the Ukrainian drama, and I, as you know, not quite Ukrainian. And, returning to Odessa, he began to think, what to do. Was walking near the Opera house, and there, in the alley Tchaikovsky — Peter Ilyich lived here — theatre for young people, and there read the ad: “Odessa Tyuzu urgently required artist the 48‑th size.”
I was a little bit surprised — I was 46, although it’s now hard to believe. Went to the theater, the clipboard lady asked: “Whaddya want?”. — “Ad” — I say. “Right now, call the Director.” And I will never forget the name of this Director — Maria Kamenetskaya Isaevna. I thought she was going to say “read a poem” and she got me right in the wardrobe Department and began to try on me shirts, jackets, and on them was written “Kohl Gubenko”. The fact that Kohl Gubenko, the actor of the Odessa youth theatre, a recent graduate of the Odessa orphanage, he entered the directing Department of the VGIK in Moscow, and said this in theater a week before the opening of the season. They began to urgently look for who will replace Kohl. Nick replaced me. Since then we have Nikolai Nikolaevich tender relationship.
I “wore” role the most interesting in the play “the wolf on the planet Almas”. Almes is the Land opposite, and the whole of the Hochma was that I played the alien. I also played petlurites is name-Raihelgauz! — so, glued a mustache.
— And when you’re in costume If Gubenko came on the scene, was the fear?
— There was no fear, but the two qualities were that I went through. First: I was so funny how the others are playing. And second: I always want to correct others, especially when they talked bad voices. With me it was hard to play because I wrote them down in his natural voice.
And I must say that at that time in the Odessa youth Theatre worked with two great artist, one of them is still alive and well and working in Tallinn — Eugene, gaychuk, people’s artist of Estonia. And the second, outstanding — Ruslan Kovalevsky, deceased, alas. When I left to enter the Leningrad theatrical Institute, I said to him, “Ruslan, I’ve learned so much, so I promise that somewhere in ten years, when I become a famous Director in Leningrad or in Moscow, will definitely invite you.” What is he without humor, he pulled out his notebook: “Since you promise now and then will forget, write it and sign it.”
Raihelgauz signed, and nine years later, when Odessa found out the Moscow theater (in the “contemporary” somewhat noisy productions and several awards for them), he kept his word. Joseph showed a friend (who was already working in Tallinn) Tabakov and Volchek, who was looking for a singer for the main role in the play “Fantasy Faryateva”, and they took it to Sovremennik.
Ruslan was the favorite in the theater, loved it and respected for his honesty and generosity.
photo: Marina Raikin
The sun of Russian poetry in his Odessa period was very prolific.
Pushkin did not climb out the window to the Governor’s wife
Joseph, do you have a favorite place in Odessa?
— Many, many — Potemkin stairs. It was 200 steps, now 198 two asleep when the sea pushed forward choice for street — before the waves beat on the stage. And what are the yards, look! When passing one house on the French Boulevard I’m always in tears: there lived a little girl, which I experienced for the first time, very strong feelings. And people go to the theater only for the senses, I am convinced. Not for meaning, not for content and for feeling.
photo: Marina Raikin
And I know those Directors who say the opposite: the public is now goes to get an intellectual orgasm.
— What’s that? When the brain have?
It’s delicious, juicy tells about Odessa. He gives her fall in love with her, as parents the girl was going to marry.
— Look, what clever people: in front of the hotel “Mozart” opened the hotel “Salieri”. And Portofrankovsky, and Panteleimon, and the Quarantine Harbor, and the Moldavian…
Not street names.
— Go to “Kumanets” — offers Joseph — there is a Grand soup.
At Raihelgauz all great people, borscht, dumplings, and history. For example, about Mikhail Saakashvili, when he was Governor of the Odessa region.
— An interesting type was, I’ll tell you. To all the officials knew how terrible roads in Odessa, he came up with: put up a tent on the most broken — in 100 or 200 kilometers from the city, and it took the officials that it drove him to sign the papers. As a result, the part of the road is still being repaired.
— Where is he now?
— Looking for him. Ukraine, Georgia — are all going to be arrested. He asked me to be the Minister of culture of the Odessa region. Said that the Odessa film Studio will do with Hollywood, and the Odessa theater will be the basis of the festival, but somehow the Mediterranean.
Yeah, you only have to spend an intergalactic chess tournament.
God bless him, with Saakashvili. The list of writers, artists, musicians, as well as minor and major political figures can all Deribasovskaya or Richelieu to shoot. The port of Odessa — General of the writer’s cradle. At the beginning of the last century, there worked two porter — Maxim Gorky and Aleksandr grin. And in the middle of his work honestly modest (but unlikely) engineer Mikhail Zhvanetsky. Odessa — it’s Babel, Olesha, Bagritsky, Katayev, Ilf and Petrov, Leonid Utesov, the great set designers Michael ivnitskii, and David Borovsky, Odessa University has educated four Nobel prize winners. And Faith is Cold and constrained, actress the Mole, who wrote this poem: “I have served in the theater of Mole/ simple Fact that/ no marriage does not take,/ Say, green.”
And Pushkin! At the Pushkin monument, which stands near the Museum-apartment on Pushkinskaya street, to gloss rubbed the nose — tourists happiness itself rubbed. Did the poet, his monument is man-made in Odessa will deliver? Of course not — more important things were busy.
I must say that the sun of Russian poetry in his Odessa period was very prolific. Specialists counted that there he wrote 32 poems, finished “the fountain of Bakhchisarai”, “Gypsy” and started “Eugene Onegin”. Loving was A. S.: three verses dedicated Carolina Sabanski (turned out to be a double agent, but after Pushkin), two major Italian wife of a merchant of Riznich, Amalia (“Negociante young…” from “Eugene Onegin”), and 13 poems Elizabeth Vorontsova, to which, again according to the myth, though in the night, a thief climbed in the window of the Palace. That’s got to be a lie and libel on classic, since the Palace was built a few years later his stay in Odessa.
photo: Marina Raikin
Woman with a scythe no more
Still, Odessa is the Ukraine, although Russian-speaking. Next year Ukraine will choose a President. Yulia Tymoshenko, who decided to take revenge for all its political failures, actively push yourself. While on the video screens now that’s another maiden: not a woman with a scythe, and a stylish office worker. Hair, elongated dryer, and side parting, glasses, like Sobchak, when she is not a socialite. Say, brave Julia, the Ukrainian Joan of Arc, but the age (well, not the same 16 years she) has a serious chance to win and support the poor. And the poor masses, as shows the Russian (and not only) history is the power. Just need to know how to manage and manipulate.
— Joseph Leonidovich, is rumors that Odessa wants to join Russia, as Crimea?
— Opinion was split and seriously: how’s that? Back in the new Russia, Kherson—Nikolaev? People are wrong: they think that now they get into Europe they would be, as in Berlin, Paris or at least in Moscow, but certainly not in Donetsk. Everything bad between Ukraine and Russia began with, I believe that during the Maidan statesmen once said to ban Russian language. That’s the first thing I had to do? This patriotism? And immediately caused a reaction. And the House of trade unions in Odessa — a continuation of the same. At least two, three, even ten languages! Let it be!
A girl can be beauty, but if she smokes…
Finally we in the “Kumanets”, next to the city Park. Here stoned from the smell of the soup, all varieties of dumplings (the best is still cherry), pate, gefilte fish… Order. And to the table he approaches a man and says Raihelgauz with a soft tone: “Often come to Odessa and VI it is decorated”. Joseph laughs.
— That’s all here. Babel at the time, wrote the Foreword to the book, where were gathered the works of seven young citizens of Odessa. It began: “In Odessa, every young man, not yet married, dreams of becoming a cabin boy on an ocean vessel or a great writer”. Then he gave the figurative description of each: compared with ripe watermelon or Bagritsky Olesha with flounder, the mother of Babel throws the frying pan, and ends, as it began, but only adds, “But we have one problem: in Odessa, we’re getting married with extraordinary stubbornness.” No, well, who’s Smoking? Where’s the smoke? Well, it is impossible.
Here he always has such a reaction to cigarette smoke — well, very painful.
— Look, you just explode. So usually behave ensued alcoholics and smokers.
— Yes, I smoked, but it was in his distant youth. In my theater I give a bonus if people quit Smoking. A reward system for throwing developed.
— How do you quit?
It is a powerful story of psychological shock. I from a young age was in love with Bella Akhmadulina. As for the poet, the woman, as in the image. When she came to Odessa, I went crazy, I knew all the poems that she dedicated to Voznesensky and Yevtushenko. If I then who said that you can lie down next to her, and then my hand was cut off, I would say ruby.
And now years later I’m in the “contemporary” rehearsing with David Borovsky performance of “1945” (learned that during the war killed about two thousand journalists, writers). But this time the marks seem to be 20 years “Contemporary”. Celebration, then, of course, the celebration of all drinking, eating, Smoking. And so I turn my head and see a meter away from my goddess — Bella Akhmadulina, she was talking with Valentin Nikulin. Both the smoke from her cigarette as if glued to the lip, and Nikulin, too. I froze, and so Bohr said quietly, “Joseph, here we look exactly the same, we stink of tobacco.” Here is the word “stink” made an impression, I realized that I react similarly.
And since then, every Smoking disgusts me. A girl can be beauty, but if she smokes, in this moment I have chopped off everything. I walk down the street, and if the person in front of me is Smoking, I begin to choke. Gaining students, I plead with them to go to other teachers, if they smoke.
photo: Marina Raikin
The facade of the house of Falz-FEIN decorated with two figures of Atlantes, bearing on their shoulders the vault of heaven.
Last kiss Utesov
Go to Utesov. More precisely, to the house where he lived, and now there is a memorial apartment. Enter the courtyard: in the middle of the table with tree stumps around. If you live together, at the table going all the neighbors. And before that, says Raihelgauz on the table of the dead were exposed, and the whole court was saying goodbye to the deceased. On the second floor of the apartment is the legendary Odessa, but Sunday is a day off.
— Did you know Utesov?
— In Odessa did not know. Oh, how he sang: “There is city which I see in my dreams, but if only you knew how dear to the Black sea opened to me in flowering Acacias city.” This song is one hundred percent hit about Odessa! I have about him very Grand, but not the Odessa — Moscow history. When we with Tolya Vasilyev and Boris Morozov kicked out of the Theater of Stanislavsky, in Moscow didn’t allow to put, and I went to the Union. And I was called Rudolf Rudin in the Theater of miniatures. “Joseph, put the play, but no struggle with the Soviet authorities. Think of something”.
— And unless you fought against the Soviet power?
— I didn’t like commies much, and this is when the grandfather — the Chairman of the collective farm! So the Cliffs. As requested Rudin, I came up with a play about the music hall where he worked the Cliffs, when there was a famous singer. Imagine, it was a circus, spinning on the trapeze, and played a dramatic role. Before the war, his first solo program was called “From the trapeze to the tragedy”. And I got the idea to make as if the memory of this legendary program.
And here I am with my wife, Marina Chasovoy come to Utesov the apartment on the Garden ring in the same apartment he lives alone, another daughter, Edith, she’s already dying of cancer. Climb to the eighth floor, come to apartment, and from behind the door we hear: “Black sea…”. It turns out that he is to our parish chose the album, listened to. Black wool pants, white shirt with unbuttoned collar of a handsome man, a legend.
“Guys, now you tell me, — says Leonid Osipovich. They say that I sing incorrectly. I sing “serdce” and they want “heart”. Then I tell him my plan, and I have a feeling that he was ready to participate because responds: “I can look, but you can still hand make”. But in the end sighed: “No, kiddies, I’m late. Thanks, but I’m on the scene wouldn’t go out. My Edith’s dying.”
When we were about to leave, he was to escort us, and we felt that we’ll never see him again. My Marina could not resist, asked: “Leonid Osipovich, can I kiss you?”. And he — it had to be seen — so widely scattered hands, “Girlie may…” — and cried. Perhaps it was his last kiss. I was lucky in my life incredibly — I have so many amazing people met. And Maria Vladimirovna Mironova? Every parish in the theatre.
How many stories I heard! In how many places did not get! Privoz, the famous Odessa Privoz left without me, without knowing it. Moldavanka, with its one-storey and two-storey shacks ran at speeds (because the plane was late). What can we understand about Odessa in three days? Everything and nothing. But one thing I realized in Odessa will certainly have to return, to further understand its unfathomable atmosphere. This seaside, friendly, hot, with light South of apathy, colorful and with a special intonation is?